Let's have a brief lesson on your window options....
A window that is large and meant to capture a view. These windows don't open.
Typically non-residential, but they are becoming quite popular for modern homes. They typically start closer to the floor than traditional windows, and go higher. They don't use decorative millions and look best spanned across a home.
These windows are very high. On the interior, they usually hug the ceiling. Typically they run in long rectangular rows. These windows are a great option to get light into a dark space. The higher the window, the brighter the sunlight coming in will be.
These windows tilt, rather than slide open. They are most popular in basements and attics where you are less likely to have a tall window. They are a totally unique look, and as the photo below shows, they don't need to be confined to secondary areas.
I think Florida when I hear jalousie windows. They are great for ventilation because you can open virtually the entire window expanse. There isn't a stationary part, as with most windows.
Double Hung Windows
These windows can open two different ways, from the top or bottom. They have two sashes, which allow for two different directions the window can open.
The easiest way to remember these windows is that they open like a door. They have hinges on one side, and are a great ventilation option!
Transoms really serve two purposes, they let in more light, and also make the window (or door) look bigger and more substantial. Some are operable, but most are stationary.
Photo Credits: http://www.tcsidingprofessionals.com/windows-doors/sunrise-windows/picture/, http://stockbargerglass.com/about/windows.php, sunset.com, Biglwindows.com, http://www.spec-net.com.au/press/1011/smr_121011.htm, hgtv, lorigilder.com, http://www.statewideenergysolutions.com/single_casement_windows, unitedhomeexperts.com,